Baroque architecture and urbanism

Jesuits, Mathematics and Military Architecture

In the second half of the sixteenth century, when the Jesuits began their mission of world evangelisation, it was realised that artillery fortifications based the so-called trace italienne of ramparts and mutually-supportive bastions, were becoming insufficient to resist assault unless their early-sixteenth century component dimensional relationships were mathematically adjusted in plan and section to accommodate improved musket ranges and outworks placed in and beyond the ditch to guard all possible approaches. [fig.



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